An open repository of real-time COVID-19 indicators


The COVID-19 pandemic presented enormous data challenges in the United States. Policy makers, epidemiological modelers, and health researchers all require up-to-date data on the pandemic and relevant public behavior, ideally at fine spatial and temporal resolution. The COVIDcast API is our attempt to fill this need: Operational since April 2020, it provides open access to both traditional public health surveillance signals (cases, deaths, and hospitalizations) and many auxiliary indicators of COVID-19 activity, such as signals extracted from deidentified medical claims data, massive online surveys, cell phone mobility data, and internet search trends. These are available at a fine geographic resolution (mostly at the county level) and are updated daily. The COVIDcast API also tracks all revisions to historical data, allowing modelers to account for the frequent revisions and backfill that are common for many public health data sources. All of the data are available in a common format through the API and accompanying R and Python software packages. This paper describes the data sources and signals, and provides examples demonstrating that the auxiliary signals in the COVIDcast API present information relevant to tracking COVID activity, augmenting traditional public health reporting and empowering research and decision-making.


An open repository of real-time COVID-19 indicators
Alex Reinhart, Logan Brooks, Maria Jahja, Aaron Rumack, Jingjing Tang, [et al, including Ángel Alexander Cabrera]
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). 2021.


@article{Reinhart2021,doi = {10.1073/pnas.2111452118},url = {},year = {2021},month = dec,publisher = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},volume = {118},number = {51},pages = {e2111452118},author = {Alex Reinhart and Logan Brooks and Maria Jahja and Aaron Rumack and Jingjing Tang and Sumit Agrawal and Wael Al Saeed and Taylor Arnold and Amartya Basu and Jacob Bien and {'{A}}ngel A. Cabrera and Andrew Chin and Eu Jing Chua and Brian Clark and Sarah Colquhoun and Nat DeFries and David C. Farrow and Jodi Forlizzi and Jed Grabman and Samuel Gratzl and Alden Green and George Haff and Robin Han and Kate Harwood and Addison J. Hu and Raphael Hyde and Sangwon Hyun and Ananya Joshi and Jimi Kim and Andrew Kuznetsov and Wichada La Motte-Kerr and Yeon Jin Lee and Kenneth Lee and Zachary C. Lipton and Michael X. Liu and Lester Mackey and Kathryn Mazaitis and Daniel J. McDonald and Phillip McGuinness and Balasubramanian Narasimhan and Michael P. O'Brien and Natalia L. Oliveira and Pratik Patil and Adam Perer and Collin A. Politsch and Samyak Rajanala and Dawn Rucker and Chris Scott and Nigam H. Shah and Vishnu Shankar and James Sharpnack and Dmitry Shemetov and Noah Simon and Benjamin Y. Smith and Vishakha Srivastava and Shuyi Tan and Robert Tibshirani and Elena Tuzhilina and Ana Karina Van Nortwick and Val{'{e}}rie Ventura and Larry Wasserman and Benjamin Weaver and Jeremy C. Weiss and Spencer Whitman and Kristin Williams and Roni Rosenfeld and Ryan J. Tibshirani},title = {An open repository of real-time {COVID}-19 indicators},journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences}}